# Ratioed Logic Circuits Inverter | Digital Electronics

Apart from the complementary CMOS inverter, there are other forms of MOS inverter that can be used to build logic gates. Figure 1(a): shows a generic nMOS inverter that uses either a resistive load or a constant current source.
For the resistor case, if we superimpose the resistor load line on the I-V characteristics of the pull-down transistor (Figure 1(b)), we can see that at o the output is some small V (Vo) Figure 1(c) e when v,-o, vo. rises to Voo. As the resistor is made larger, the Vo decreases and the current flowing when the inverter is turned on decreases.
Correspondingly, as the load r resistor is decreased in value, the να rises and the ON current: rises. Selection of the resistor value would seek a compromise between Vo the current drawn, and the pull-up delay that r increases with the value of the load resistor. Current sources al have high output resistance and thus offer sharper transitions.

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Neither high-value resistors nor ideal current sources are readily available in most CMOS processes. A more practical circuit called a pseudo-nMOS inverter is shown in figure 2 (a). It uses a pMOS transistor pull-up or load that has its gate permanently grounded to approximate a constant of the current source. Pseudo-nMOS circuits get their name from an early nMOS technology (which preceded CMOS technology as a major systems technology) in which only ut nMOS transistors were available; the grounded pMOS R transistor is reminiscent of a depletion mode nMOS transistor that is always ON.

The transfer characteristics may again be derived by finding Vo for which L for a given Vi, as shown in Q Figure 2 (b) and Figure 2 (c). The beta ratio affects the shape of the transfer characteristics and the Vou of the inverter Larger pMOS transistors offer faster rise times but less sharp transfer characteristics. Figure 2 (d) shows that when the nMOS transistor is turned on, a constant DC current flows in the circuit.

The gates in this section are called ratioed circuits one is because the transfer function depends on the ratio of the opposing strength of the pull-down transistor to the pull-up device. The net resistor, current source, or ON transistor is sometimes called a static load. It is possible to construct other radioed circuits such as NAND or NOR gates by replacing the pull-up transistors with a single pull-up device.

Unlike complementary circuits, the ratio must be chosen so the circuit operates correctly despite any variations from nominal component values that may occur during manufacturing. Moreover, radioed circuits to dissipate power continually in certain states (e.g. when the output is low) and have poorer noise margins than complementary circuits.

Therefore, ratioed circuits tend to be used only in very limited circumstances where they offer critical benefits such as smaller area or reduced input capacitance.