Skip to main content

History of Electric Grid

History of Electric Grid

The first alternating current power grid system was installed in 1886.

In the 20th century, local grids time became larger as passes and were finally interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. These are delivering power to major load centers via high capacity power lines which were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller industrial and domestic users over the entire supply area. These are effective, due to efficiency, boosting features that can be cost-effective only when the stations become very large.

History of Electric Grid


Power stations were located strategically to be close to fossil fuel reserves. Siting of hydro-electric dams in mountain areas also strongly affected the structure of the emerging grid. Nuclear power plants were cited for the availability of cooling water. Finally, fossil fuel-fired power stations were initially very polluting and were sited as far as economically possible from population centers. In some areas, the supply of electricity, especially at peak times, could not keep up with this demand. So, it results in poor power quality including blackouts, power cuts, and brownouts.

Towards the end of the 20th century, electricity demand patterns were established:

  1. Domestic Heating
  2. Air conditioning

This lead to daily peaks in demand that were met by an array of ‘peaking power generators’ that would only be turned on for short periods each day.

Popular posts from this blog

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory The value of the coefficient of consolidation has been assumed to be constant.  The distance d of the drainage path cannot be measured accurately in the field. The thickness of the deposit is generally variable, and an average value has to be estimated.  There is sometimes difficulty 1n locating the drainage face, sometimes thin previous seams that can act as good drainage face are missed in the boring operations. The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is one-dimensional. In the field, the consolidation is generally 3-dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the time rate of consolidation. The initial consolidation and secondary consolidation have been neglected. Sometimes these form an important part of the total consolidation. In actual practice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform. Read More Muller-Breslau principle

Price Guard Wire Method

Price Guard Wire Method Some form of  Price Guard Wire Method  is generally used to eliminate the errors caused by leakage currents over insulation. Fig. 3.14 illustrates the operation of This Method. In fig 3.14(a), a high resistance mounted on a piece of insulating material is measured by the ammeter voltmeter method. The micro-ammeter measures the sum of the current through the resistor (IR) and the current through the leakage path around the resistor. The measured value of resistance computed from the readings indicated on the voltmeter and the microammeter, will not be a true value but will be in error.   Figure 3.14 Application of  guard  circuit for measurement of high resistance In fig, 3.14 (b), the  guard  terminal has been added to the resistance terminal block. The  guard  terminal surrounds the resistance terminal entirely and is connected to the battery side of the micro-ammeter. The leakage current IL now

Negative Booster

Negative booster A negative booster is employed to conform to the regulation that the potential difference between any two points of the rail return shall not exceed 7 V. Two boosters, positive and negative, are used which are mechanically coupled together and driven by a DC motor. The positive booster is connected to the trolley wire (near the generating station) and the negative booster (separately excited) is connected to the track rail.  The 'positive booster' adds voltage to the line while the 'negative booster lowers the potential of the point it is connected to. As we go along the trolley wire away from the generating station/sub-station, the potential drop increases, and the voltage of the trolley wire falls. Since the current returns via the track rail points away from the generating station acquire high potentials. This potential is brought down by the negative boost provided by the negative booster. When the load is sufficiently far aw