Skip to main content

Lightning Arrester

Lightning Arrester

Lightning arrester devices are used at substations and at line terminations to discharge the lightning overvoltages and short-duration switching surges from lightning voltage.

They are capable of discharging 10 to 20 KA of long-duration surges (8120 us) and 100 to 250 KA of the short duration surge currents. These are non-linear resistance in series with spark gap which acts as fast switches.

The requirement for Surge Arrester

Lightning flashover on transmission lines can be reduced by increasing the insulation or by reducing the tower footings resistance. An alternate approach is to install transmission line surge arresters in parallel with the insulator strings to prevent insulator flashover.

Following is the basic operational requirements for arresters:

1. If lightning strikes within a protected section, it should not create flashover either inside or outside the protected section.

2. If lightning strikes outside a protected section, it should not create a flashover mild Protected section.

3. Lightning flash can inject several strokes in less than a second so arresters must have sufficient energy capability.

4. Arresters that are for lightning protection should not conduct during SWitChing or during low-frequency overvoltage due to the line to ground fault, etc.

5. It should be able to keep the system voltage as possible as normal.

Types of surge arresters

There are mainly the following live types of surge arresters:

1. Expulsion type surge arrester.

2. Valve-type surge arrester.

3. Metal-oxide surge arrester.

4. Rod-gap type surge arrester.

5. Zinc-oxide surge arrester.

Read More

Popular posts from this blog

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory The value of the coefficient of consolidation has been assumed to be constant.  The distance d of the drainage path cannot be measured accurately in the field. The thickness of the deposit is generally variable, and an average value has to be estimated.  There is sometimes difficulty 1n locating the drainage face, sometimes thin previous seams that can act as good drainage face are missed in the boring operations. The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is one-dimensional. In the field, the consolidation is generally 3-dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the time rate of consolidation. The initial consolidation and secondary consolidation have been neglected. Sometimes these form an important part of the total consolidation. In actual practice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform. Read More Muller-Breslau principle

Price Guard Wire Method

Price Guard Wire Method Some form of  Price Guard Wire Method  is generally used to eliminate the errors caused by leakage currents over insulation. Fig. 3.14 illustrates the operation of This Method. In fig 3.14(a), a high resistance mounted on a piece of insulating material is measured by the ammeter voltmeter method. The micro-ammeter measures the sum of the current through the resistor (IR) and the current through the leakage path around the resistor. The measured value of resistance computed from the readings indicated on the voltmeter and the microammeter, will not be a true value but will be in error.   Figure 3.14 Application of  guard  circuit for measurement of high resistance In fig, 3.14 (b), the  guard  terminal has been added to the resistance terminal block. The  guard  terminal surrounds the resistance terminal entirely and is connected to the battery side of the micro-ammeter. The leakage current IL now bypasses t

Negative Booster

Negative booster A negative booster is employed to conform to the regulation that the potential difference between any two points of the rail return shall not exceed 7 V. Two boosters, positive and negative, are used which are mechanically coupled together and driven by a DC motor. The positive booster is connected to the trolley wire (near the generating station) and the negative booster (separately excited) is connected to the track rail.  The 'positive booster' adds voltage to the line while the 'negative booster lowers the potential of the point it is connected to. As we go along the trolley wire away from the generating station/sub-station, the potential drop increases, and the voltage of the trolley wire falls. Since the current returns via the track rail points away from the generating station acquire high potentials. This potential is brought down by the negative boost provided by the negative booster. When the load is sufficiently far away from the generating stati