# Simpson and Scarse's Theory

[caption id="attachment_1146" align="alignnone" width="3862"] Simpson and Scarse's Theory[/caption]

Hello, friend Today we are discussing Simpson and Scarse's Theory. Simpson and Scarse's Theoryis a Is A interesting Topic So let start, This theory is based on the temperature variations in the various regions of the cloud as shown in figure (4.5). In figure (4.5), a cloud is shown to be traveling from left to right along with the air currents. When these air currents collide with the water particles in the bottom of the cloud, the water drops are broken and carried upwards, unless they combine and remain in a small packet of positive charges. With the collision of water drops the air is negatively charged and water particles are positively charged. These negative charges in the air are at once absorbed by the cloud particles, which move upward with air currents. Figure 4.5 shows metrological and electrical conditions within a thundercloud. A positive charge resides in the upper portion of the cloud above a region of separation from the negative charge in which the temperature is between -10 to 20°C. Thus a net positive charge will occur above the mid-level of the cloud, and the negative charge will be distributed more generally throughout the cloud body. This is how the charge is separated into a thunder cloud. Once this is done, the conditions are set for initiation of a lightning stroke.

### Limitations of Terzaghi Theory

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory The value of the coefficient of consolidation has been assumed to be constant.  The distance d of the drainage path cannot be measured accurately in the field. The thickness of the deposit is generally variable, and an average value has to be estimated.  There is sometimes difficulty 1n locating the drainage face, sometimes thin previous seams that can act as good drainage face are missed in the boring operations. The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is one-dimensional. In the field, the consolidation is generally 3-dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the time rate of consolidation. The initial consolidation and secondary consolidation have been neglected. Sometimes these form an important part of the total consolidation. In actual practice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform. Read More Muller-Breslau principle

### Price Guard Wire Method

Price Guard Wire Method Some form of  Price Guard Wire Method  is generally used to eliminate the errors caused by leakage currents over insulation. Fig. 3.14 illustrates the operation of This Method. In fig 3.14(a), a high resistance mounted on a piece of insulating material is measured by the ammeter voltmeter method. The micro-ammeter measures the sum of the current through the resistor (IR) and the current through the leakage path around the resistor. The measured value of resistance computed from the readings indicated on the voltmeter and the microammeter, will not be a true value but will be in error.   Figure 3.14 Application of  guard  circuit for measurement of high resistance In fig, 3.14 (b), the  guard  terminal has been added to the resistance terminal block. The  guard  terminal surrounds the resistance terminal entirely and is connected to the battery side of the micro-ammeter. The leakage current IL now bypasses t

### Negative Booster

Negative booster A negative booster is employed to conform to the regulation that the potential difference between any two points of the rail return shall not exceed 7 V. Two boosters, positive and negative, are used which are mechanically coupled together and driven by a DC motor. The positive booster is connected to the trolley wire (near the generating station) and the negative booster (separately excited) is connected to the track rail.  The 'positive booster' adds voltage to the line while the 'negative booster lowers the potential of the point it is connected to. As we go along the trolley wire away from the generating station/sub-station, the potential drop increases, and the voltage of the trolley wire falls. Since the current returns via the track rail points away from the generating station acquire high potentials. This potential is brought down by the negative boost provided by the negative booster. When the load is sufficiently far away from the generating stati