Skip to main content

Network Layer

Network Layer

Basic Requirement of Network Layer

The network layer is used to route data between different nodes on the network. It uses addresses to be able to tell which pc to send data to. This layer can also break apart larger messages into smaller chunks to be reassembled on the opposite end.

Network Layer

Network Layer Services

  1. Guaranteed delivery

  2. Guaranteed delivery with bounded delay

  3. In-order packet delivery

  4. Guaranteed minimal bandwidth

  5. Guaranteed maximum jitter

  6. Security services

1. Guaranteed Delivery

This service guarantees that the packet will eventually arrive at its destination.

2. Guaranteed Delivery with Bounded Delay

This service not only guarantees delivery of the packet but delivery inside a mere host-to-host delay sure (for example, inside a hundred msec).

Furthermore, the following services could be provided to a How of products between a given source and destination.

3. ln-order Packet Delivery

This service guarantees that packets arrive at the destination in the order that they were sent.

4. Guaranteed Minimal Bandwidth

This network layer service emulates the behavior of a transmission link of a specified bit rate (for example, 1 Mbps) between sending and receiving hosts. As long as the causing host transmits bits (as a part of packets) at a rate below the required bit rate then no packet is lost and every packet arrives inside a prespecified host-to-host delay (for example, within forty msec).

5. Guaranteed Maximum Jitter

This service guarantees that the quantity of your time between the transmission of 2 successive packets at the sender is equal to the quantity of your time between their receipt at the destination (or that this spacing changes by no over some mere value).

6. Security Services

Using a secret session key known only by a supply and destination host, the network layer within the supply host might encipher the payloads of all datagrams being sent to the destination host. The network layer within the destination host would then be answerable for decrypting the payloads. With such a service, confidentiality would be provided for all transport. layer segments (TCP and UDP) between the supply and destination hosts. additionally confidentiality, in the network layer might give knowledge integrity and supply authentication services.

Popular posts from this blog

RS Aggarwal Aptitude Book PDF Free Download

RS Aggarwal Aptitude Book PDF Free Download RS Agarwal Aptitude Book PDF Free Download: Quantitative Aptitude by R.S Aggarwal is a standout amongst the most inclining books among the hopefuls getting ready for Bank PO, PO, MBA, RBI, IBPS, CAT, SSC, IAS, PSC, Hotel Management, Railway Recruitment Exams, and other aggressive and placement tests. This book is suggested by different specialists in this field. This book covers relatively every theme which is being requested for the focused exams. On the off chance that you are looking to Download RS Aggarwal Quantitative Aptitude PDF's most recent version with the expectation of complimentary then you appear to be at the correct place.    Download PDF  RS Aggarwal Reasoning  In English RS Agarwal Aptitude Book PDF Free Download This book covers Problems on Surds and Indices, Simplification, Numbers and Ages, Pipes and Cisterns, Boats and Streams, Problems on Trains, Simple and Compound Interests, Time and Work, Permutations and Combina

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory The value of the coefficient of consolidation has been assumed to be constant.  The distance d of the drainage path cannot be measured accurately in the field. The thickness of the deposit is generally variable, and an average value has to be estimated.  There is sometimes difficulty 1n locating the drainage face, and sometimes thin previous seams that can act as good drainage faces are missed in the boring operations. The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is one-dimensional. In the field, the consolidation is generally 3-dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the time rate of consolidation. The initial consolidation and secondary consolidation have been neglected. Sometimes these form an important part of the total consolidation. In actual practice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform.

Comparison between VSI and CSI

Comparison between VSI and CSI In power electronic systems, inverters are an essential component that converts direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC). There are two main types of inverters used in power electronic systems: Voltage Source Inverters (VSI) and Current Source Inverters (CSI). Both have their own unique advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of which to use depends on the specific application and the desired outcome. Comparisons between voltage source inverters and current source inverters are as follows. In voltage source inverters, the input voltage is maintained constant and the amplitude of the output voltage does not depend on the load. However, the waveform of load current, as well as its magnitude, depends upon the nature of load impedance.  In current source inverters (CSI), the input current is constant but adjustable. The amplitude of output current from CSI is freelance of the load. However, the magnitude of output voltage and its undulation outp