rel="canonical" href="" /> Network Layer Skip to main content

Network Layer

Network Layer

Basic Requirement of Network Layer

The network layer is used to route data between different nodes on the network. It uses addresses to be able to tell which pc to send data to. This layer can also break apart larger messages into smaller chunks to be reassembled on the opposite end.

Network Layer

Network Layer Services

  1. Guaranteed delivery

  2. Guaranteed delivery with bounded delay

  3. In-order packet delivery

  4. Guaranteed minimal bandwidth

  5. Guaranteed maximum jitter

  6. Security services

1. Guaranteed Delivery

This service guarantees that the packet will eventually arrive at its destination.

2. Guaranteed Delivery with Bounded Delay

This service not only guarantees delivery of the packet but delivery inside a mere host-to-host delay sure (for example, inside a hundred msec).

Furthermore, the following services could be provided to a How of products between a given source and destination.

3. ln-order Packet Delivery

This service guarantees that packets arrive at the destination in the order that they were sent.

4. Guaranteed Minimal Bandwidth

This network layer service emulates the behavior of a transmission link of a specified bit rate (for example, 1 Mbps) between sending and receiving hosts. As long as the causing host transmits bits (as a part of packets) at a rate below the required bit rate then no packet is lost and every packet arrives inside a prespecified host-to-host delay (for example, within forty msec).

5. Guaranteed Maximum Jitter

This service guarantees that the quantity of your time between the transmission of 2 successive packets at the sender is equal to the quantity of your time between their receipt at the destination (or that this spacing changes by no over some mere value).

6. Security Services

Using a secret session key known only by a supply and destination host, the network layer within the supply host might encipher the payloads of all datagrams being sent to the destination host. The network layer within the destination host would then be answerable for decrypting the payloads. With such a service, confidentiality would be provided for all transport. layer segments (TCP and UDP) between the supply and destination hosts. additionally confidentiality, the network layer might give knowledge integrity and supply authentication services.

Popular posts from this blog

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory The value of the coefficient of consolidation has been assumed to be constant.  The distance d of the drainage path cannot be measured accurately in the field. The thickness of the deposit is generally variable, and an average value has to be estimated.  There is sometimes difficulty 1n locating the drainage face, sometimes thin previous seams that can act as good drainage face are missed in the boring operations. The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is one-dimensional. In the field, the consolidation is generally 3-dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the time rate of consolidation. The initial consolidation and secondary consolidation have been neglected. Sometimes these form an important part of the total consolidation. In actual practice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform. Read More Muller-Breslau principle

Price Guard Wire Method

Price Guard Wire Method Some form of  Price Guard Wire Method  is generally used to eliminate the errors caused by leakage currents over insulation. Fig. 3.14 illustrates the operation of This Method. In fig 3.14(a), a high resistance mounted on a piece of insulating material is measured by the ammeter voltmeter method. The micro-ammeter measures the sum of the current through the resistor (IR) and the current through the leakage path around the resistor. The measured value of resistance computed from the readings indicated on the voltmeter and the microammeter, will not be a true value but will be in error.   Figure 3.14 Application of  guard  circuit for measurement of high resistance In fig, 3.14 (b), the  guard  terminal has been added to the resistance terminal block. The  guard  terminal surrounds the resistance terminal entirely and is connected to the battery side of the micro-ammeter. The leakage current IL now

Streamer Theory of Breakdown in Gases

Streamer Theory of Breakdown in Gases According to the Townsend theory firstly, current growth occurs as a result of the ionization process only. But in practice, breakdown voltages were found to depend on the gas pressure and the geometry of the gap. Second chances time lags of the order of 10-5 s, but practically it was observed to occur at a very short time of 10-8 s. Also, the Townsend mechanism predicts a very diffused form of discharge, that actually discharges were found to be filamentary and irregular. Townsend's mechanism failed to explain all these observed phenomena and as a result, The Streamer theory was proposed. The theory predicts the development of a spark discharge directly from a single avalanche in which the space charge developed by the avalanche itself is said to transform the avalanche into a plasma steamer. In Fig 1.7, a single electron starting at the cathode by ionization builds up an avalanche that crosses the gap. The electrons in the a