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Showing posts with the label Civil Engineering

Terzaghi Theory

Terzaghi Theory Terzaghi theory is a fundamental concept in soil mechanics, which was developed by Karl Terzaghi in the 1920s. It describes the behavior of soil as a two-phase system consisting of solid particles and pore fluid and explains how the stresses and strains in soil are related to one another. The theory is based on the principles of effective stress and total stress and is used to analyze the stability and settlement of foundations, slopes, and other soil structures. Terzaghi's work laid the foundation for modern soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering. Terzaghi's theory also includes the concept of soil compressibility, which describes how soil changes volume in response to changes in stress. According to the theory, the soil will compress and lose volume when subjected to an increase in stress and will expand and gain volume when stress is reduced. This behavior is known as compression and rebound and is important in the design of foundations and other structu

Difference between Beam and Arch

Difference between Beam and Arch Today we are discussing the Difference between Beam and Arch. This Is the topic of civil engineering. ARCH CURVED SHAPED. HAVE MORE STRENGTH THAN BEAM or a curved symmetrical structure spanning an opening and typically supporting the weight of a bridge, roof, or wall above it. BEAM STRAIGHT SHAPE.LESS STRENGTH THAN ARCH or a long, sturdy piece of squared timber or metal used to support the roof or floor of a building. Difference A curved  beam  can be an  arch  but an  arch  is not necessarily made from a curved  beam . An  arch  can be fabricated from many materials. One form of an  arch  is a gravity  arch  where properly shaped stones or blocks are correctly shaped and laid so gravity holds the  arch  in place. The structural behavior of a beam is in a state of equilibrium if the constraints permit no rigid body movement upon the application of loads. Whereas an arch may be looked upon as a curved girder, either a solid rib or braced supported at it

Biochemical oxygen demand

Biochemical oxygen demand Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the measurement of oxygen consumed by living microorganisms (primarily bacteria) while utilizing the organic matter present in a water or waste sample under conditions as close as possible to those that occur in nature. Microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrite will also contribute to BOD . Non-biodegradable (or refractory) organic compounds will not contribute to BOD . In order to make BOD test quantitative, the samples must be protected from the air to prevent reoxygenation as the dissolved oxygen concentration diminishes. Also, high concentration wastes must be diluted to ensure that dissolved oxygen will be present throughout the test duration. It is important that the environmental conditions during the test be suitable for the living ‘ organisms. Therefore nutrients are added to the dilution water. Nutrient blanks must be included in the test to ensure that the nutrient-enriched dilution water does not contribute to 

Septic Tank Is

Septic Tank Is In normal areas and in the case of isolated buildings and institutions, hotels, hospitals schools, small residential colonies, an underground sewerage system with provision for complete treatment of sewage may be neither feasible nor economical even though water supply facilities exist. In such cases, septic tanks and subsurface disposal of effluent are provided. The septic tank  is should be located as far as possible away from buildings. It should not be located in swampy areas or areas prone to flooding. Where there are 15 clayey or nonporous soil or where houses are closely built suitably designed loading pits may have to be used a septic tank is cannot be avoided. Where the soil IS heavily porous the septic tank is effective. The septic tank  15 a water-tight, single-storeyed, underground tank 111 which sewage is retained for a long period. Here sedimentation and sludge digestion take place simultaneously. The Septic  tank is generally rectangular in shape with R

Submission, Opening, and Scrutiny of Tender

 Submission, Opening, and Scrutiny of Tender Submission of Tender In order to keep secrecy until the opening of the tender, they should be submitted under sealed cover at the latest by the closing time. For identity purposes, the name of the work and its due Date should be clearly written on the top of the envelope. Tenders may be sent by post or can be put in the letterbox kept for this purpose in the premises of the office. The time usually is kept up to 5 clocks. i.e. the office hour or after the normal delivery time of delivery by post Tenders received after due time and date are rejected. Opening of Tender The valid tenders are opened at the notified time in the presence of underwear or their representatives. Each page of the tender has to be initialed in the opening officer. Scrutiny of Tender Each tender is scrutinized carefully and any writings or cutting are initialed By the opening officer to ensure that tenders are not tampered with at a later stage.  

What is Tender Document

What is Tender Document Generally, a lender document consists of the following information. General conditions of contract including a time limit. ·          Special conditions of the contract. ·          Schedule of items of work with clear specifications. ·          Layout plan or location of work. ·          Set of drawings including working drawings. ·          Detailed specifications, ·          Scheduled stores to be supplied by the owner including the rates and place of handing ever ·          Amount of scouts ones to be deposited ·          Mode of payment for the work to be done. ·          Approximate quantity of work under each item. ·          Rate of supply of power and the point of supply. ·          Location of water supply. ·          Time of completion and the progress to be made. ·          Production of income tax and sales tax clearance certificates. ·          Penalty condition for slow progress and delay in completion. ·          Designation of the

Types Of Tenders

Types Of Tenders Open Tender Open tendering is the main tendering procedure employed by both the government and the private sector. The Client advertises the tender offer in the local newspaper giving detail and key information of the proposed works and inviting interested contractors to tender. In the legal sense, such tender notices constitute an invitation to treat, a mere request by the employer for a suitable contractor to submit their bids or offers If the prerequisite to tendering on the form of possession of Cr the necessary registration has been identified in the tender notice, then the advertisement is directed to only that particular class of the public having the said qualifications. In order to reduce the number of inquiries, earnest money is deposited (for private projects). Until the receipt of a bone file tender is selected then it will be returned. Although the price is very important in the decision on which tender or bid to accept, it is not the only factor taken in

Tendering Process Steps

Tendering Process Steps  While inviting tenders following rules should be observed. Tenders are invited in regard to work contracts except when any exemption has been granted by the government. Tenders must be invited to the prescribed tender forms. Tenders must be invited in a sealed cover. In order to get more tenders wide publicity should be given. The publicity may be made through important daily newspapers, government gazette and pasting notices in public places, and sending letters to the reputed contractors and dealers. The tender notice should contain the following information: (a) Name of place and time where the contract documents can be seen and blank tender forms obtained. The cost of tender form and mode of its deposit also should be given, (b) Name of place. date and time, receipt, and opening of the tender should be given clearly, (c) The amount and mode of deposit of earnest money should be written clearly. Whether. The earnest money is to be deposited by bank draft, ca

Information Required In Tender Notice

Information Required In Tender Notice  Usually in a tender notice following information should be given: Name of the department calling tenders. Name of work and location. Designation of the officer inviting tenders. Last date and time of receipt of tenders. Period of availability of tender forms. Cost of tender documents and estimated cost of work. Time of completion and type of contract. Earnest money deposit to be paid. Date, time, and place of opening tenders. Designation of the officer opening the tenders. Time and place from where tender documents may be obtained or inspected. Read More TENDER DEFINITION TYPES OF TENDERS TENDERING PROCESS STEPS INFORMATION REQUIRED IN TENDER NOTICE