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Data Reduction Strategies

Data Reduction Strategies  Data reduction techniques can be applied 1o obtain a reduced representation of the data set that is much smaller in volume, yet. closely maintains the integrity of the original data, That is, míning on the reduced data set should be more efficient yet produce the same analytical results Data Cube Aggregation, where aggregation operations are applied to the data in the construction of a data cube. Attribute Subset Selection, where irrelevant, weakly relevant, or redundant attributes of dimensions may be detected and removed. Dimensionality Reduction, where the encoding mechanisms are used to reduce the data set size. Numerosity Reduction, where the data are replaced or estimated by alternative smaller data representations such as parametric models or no parametric methods such as clustering camping, and the use of histograms. Discretization and Concept Hierarchy Generation, where ranges or higher conceptual levels replace raw data values for attributes. Data d

RTOS Kernel Architecture

RTOS Kernel Architecture For simpler applications, RTOS is usually a kernel but as complexity increases, various modules like networking protocol stacks debugging facilities, a device I/Os are includes in addition to the kernel. RTOS architecture diagram k (A) Kernel, RTOS kernel acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the applications. There are three broad categories of kernels (i) Monolithic kernel Monolithic kernels are part of Unix-like operating systems like Linux, F FreeBSD, etc. A monolithic kernel is one single program that contains all nine of the code necessary to perform each kernel connected task. It runs all basic system services (i. e. process and memory management; interrupt handling and Input /Output communication, file system, etc) and provides powerful abstraction§ of the Underlying hardware. Amount of context switches and electronic communication concerned area unit greatly reduced that makes it runs quicker than microkernel. (ii) Microkernel It runs o

Broadcast Routing In Computer Networks

Broadcast Routing In Computer Networks When a tool has multiple methods to achieve a destination, it always selects one path by preferring it over others. This choice method is termed as routing. Routing is finished by special network devices known as routers or it may be done by means that of software system processes. The software-based routers have limited practicality and limited scope. A router is often designed with some default route. A default route tells the router wherever to forward a packet if there's no route found for a particular destination. just in case there are multiple methods existing to achieve an identical destination, the router will create a call supported the subsequent information: Hop Count Bandwidth Metric Prefix-length Delay Routes may be statically designed or dynamically learned. 0ne route may be designed to be most well-liked over others. By default, the published packets don't seem to be routed and forwarded by the routers on any

Criteria For Selecting A Microcontroller

Criteria For Selecting A Microcontroller  microcontroller for a product can be a daunting task. Not only there are a number of technical features to consider, but there are also business case issues such as cost and lead-times that can cripple a project. At the start of a project, there is a great temptation to jump in and start selecting a microcontroller before the details of the system have been hashed out. This is, of course, a bad idea. Before any thought is given to the microcontroller, the hardware and software engineers should work out the high levels of the system, block diagram and How to chart them and only then is there enough information to start making a rational decision on microcontroller selection. When that point is reached, there are 10 easy steps that can be followed to ensure that the right choice is made. (1) Make a list of required hardware interfaces Using the general hardware block diagram, make a list of all the external interfaces that the microcontroller wil

System Development Life Cycle

System development life cycle is otherwise called the system life cycle, issue – illuminating cycle, system development cycle, system development process, and system development cycle, system development process and system consider. Maybe, the most straightforward perspective of these life cycle is a succession of errands, an approach that was utilized as a part of the beginning of creating PC-based systems.  It is in the idea of systems that they share a typical life cycle design. After a system has been inactivity for various years, it develops after some time, turns out to be less and less compelling in light of the changing condition to which it needs to adjust, and in the end kicks the bucket.  For the most part, it is seen that the minor alterations or changes don't make much impact, so either the significant changes are required to suit the new advancements, traits prerequisites, programming, equipment assets, and so on or on the other hand, the system needs to grow once mo