The torque converter is a device used to the multiplication of torque. It consists of:
(i) The impeller or the driving member,
(ii) The turbine or driven member,
(iii) The stator fixed to the frame through a freewheel.
Torque Converter Diagram
When the engine is started, the impeller starts rotating, the oil from the impeller is pushed into the turbine. The oil, having high kinetic energy from the engine through the impeller hits the outer edge of the turbine. This force will increase with the rise of engine speed. once it’s nice enough the turbine starts rotating and therefore the vehicle moves. The fluid from the turbine is made to strike a stator, which changes it’s direction suitably so that the oil leaving g the stator strike the impel [er in favorable direction i.e. in the same direction in which the impeller is turning.
Thus repeated pushing of the turbine blades causes the torque on the turbine to increase, the phenomenon being called torque multiplication.
Torque Converter Advantages
- No, wear moving parts.
- No adjustment to be made.
- No maintenance necessary except oil level.
- Simple design.
- No skill required for operating it.
- The car can stop in gear and move off also by pressing accelerator pedal only.
- No jack on transmission when the gear engages.
- The torque converter increases the torque in a ratio of about 2: l to 3:1. Thus, it serves the same purpose as that of a gearbox but in a better way.
- In torque converter, the torque variation is continuous, but in a gearbox, a torque variation is only a finite number of steps.
- The efficiency of the torque converter is high within a narrow limit of speed.
Torque Converter Disadvantages
- It is not efficient for a wide range of speed.
- It is more costly.