Skip to main content

Digital Protection

Digital Protection


[caption id="attachment_1231" align="alignnone" width="540"]Digital Protection Digital Protection[/caption]

In a large interconnected power system, having large sizes of alternators and higher capacity transmission lines, the protective relays and circuit breakers should operate as fast as possible to improve the transient stability of the system. The transients consist of a large number of harmonic currents and voltages with the addition of doing. component, Both Fundamental component of current and voltage are with inherent large time delays required. For protective relaying purpose applications. Earlier, analog filters were used. The digital filters extract the fundamental components from the transient in about half a cycle.


The reasons for using digital protection relaying schemes in place of analog protection offers many advantages over analog protection. As minicomputers, microprocessors, microcontroller is developing the protective relaying schemes have been developed on these devices. These devices offer low burden, filter in operation, low maintenance, are not affected by external causes such as mechanical shocks and vibrations.



Digital protection Advantages


(a) Functional flexibility: A variety of protection functions such as distance relay characteristics (mho, ohm, quadrilateral, parabolic, etc.) can be obtained with a slight change in hardware and software.


(b) Low cost: The cost of equipment in digital protection is low.


(c) Self-checking functions: By using proper software, the hardware faults can be easily diagnosed.


(d) Easy communication: Using microprocessor-based relay, easy interface with digital communication equipment is possible.


(e) System integration and digital environment: The system of the digital relay can be easily integrated with other devices.


(f) Longer life: The performance of digital protection equipment does not change because of aging of components.


Read More


Working of Ground Wires

Popular posts from this blog

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory The value of the coefficient of consolidation has been assumed to be constant.  The distance d of the drainage path cannot be measured accurately in the field. The thickness of the deposit is generally variable, and an average value has to be estimated.  There is sometimes difficulty 1n locating the drainage face, sometimes thin previous seams that can act as good drainage face are missed in the boring operations. The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is one-dimensional. In the field, the consolidation is generally 3-dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the time rate of consolidation. The initial consolidation and secondary consolidation have been neglected. Sometimes these form an important part of the total consolidation. In actual practice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform. Read More Muller-Breslau principle

Price Guard Wire Method

Price Guard Wire Method Some form of  Price Guard Wire Method  is generally used to eliminate the errors caused by leakage currents over insulation. Fig. 3.14 illustrates the operation of This Method. In fig 3.14(a), a high resistance mounted on a piece of insulating material is measured by the ammeter voltmeter method. The micro-ammeter measures the sum of the current through the resistor (IR) and the current through the leakage path around the resistor. The measured value of resistance computed from the readings indicated on the voltmeter and the microammeter, will not be a true value but will be in error.   Figure 3.14 Application of  guard  circuit for measurement of high resistance In fig, 3.14 (b), the  guard  terminal has been added to the resistance terminal block. The  guard  terminal surrounds the resistance terminal entirely and is connected to the battery side of the micro-ammeter. The leakage current IL now

Negative Booster

Negative booster A negative booster is employed to conform to the regulation that the potential difference between any two points of the rail return shall not exceed 7 V. Two boosters, positive and negative, are used which are mechanically coupled together and driven by a DC motor. The positive booster is connected to the trolley wire (near the generating station) and the negative booster (separately excited) is connected to the track rail.  The 'positive booster' adds voltage to the line while the 'negative booster lowers the potential of the point it is connected to. As we go along the trolley wire away from the generating station/sub-station, the potential drop increases, and the voltage of the trolley wire falls. Since the current returns via the track rail points away from the generating station acquire high potentials. This potential is brought down by the negative boost provided by the negative booster. When the load is sufficiently far aw