rel="canonical" href="https://www.selfstudyworld.com/" /> RTOS Kernel Architecture Skip to main content

RTOS Kernel Architecture

RTOS Kernel Architecture

For simpler applications, RTOS is usually a kernel but as complexity increases, various modules like networking protocol stacks debugging facilities, and a device I/Os are included in addition to the kernel.

RTOS architecture diagram

RTOS Kernel Architecture



k (A) Kernel, RTOS kernel acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the applications. There are three broad categories of kernels


(i) Monolithic kernel

Monolithic kernels are part of Unix-like operating systems like Linux, F FreeBSD, etc. A monolithic kernel is one single program that contains all nine of the code necessary to perform each kernel-connected task. It runs all basic system services (i. e. process and memory management; interrupt handling and Input /Output communication, file system, etc) and provides powerful abstraction§ of the Underlying hardware. The amount of context switches and electronic communication concerning area unit is greatly reduced which makes it runs quicker than a microkernel.

(ii) Microkernel

It runs only basic process communication (messaging) and 1/0 control. It normally provides only minimal services such as managing memory protection, Interprocess communication, and process management. The other functions like running the hardware processes are not handled directly by micro kernels. Thus, microkernels provide a smaller set of simple hardware abstractions. It is additional stable than monolithic because the kernel is unaffected even though the servers are unsuccessful (i. e. file system). Microkernels are part of operating systems like AIX, BeOS, Mach, Mac OS X, MINIX, and QNX. etc.

(iii) Hybrid Kernel

Hybrid kernels are extensions of microkernels with some properties of monolithic kernels. Hybrid kernel area unit is similar to microkernels, except that ' they include additional code in kernel space so that such code can run more swiftly than it would be it in the user. space. These are a part of the operative systems like Microsoft Windows NGO, 2000 and XP DragonF 1y BSD, etc.


(iv) Exokernel

Exokernels provide efficient control over hardware. It runs only services protecting the resources (i.e. tracking the ownership, guarding the usage, revoking access to resources, etc) by providing a low-level interface for library operating systems and leaving the management to the application.

Popular posts from this blog

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory

Limitations of Terzaghi Theory The value of the coefficient of consolidation has been assumed to be constant.  The distance d of the drainage path cannot be measured accurately in the field. The thickness of the deposit is generally variable, and an average value has to be estimated.  There is sometimes difficulty 1n locating the drainage face, sometimes thin previous seams that can act as good drainage face are missed in the boring operations. The equation is based on the assumption that the consolidation is one-dimensional. In the field, the consolidation is generally 3-dimensional. The lateral drainage may have a significant effect on the time rate of consolidation. The initial consolidation and secondary consolidation have been neglected. Sometimes these form an important part of the total consolidation. In actual practice, the pressure distribution may be far from linear or uniform. Read More Muller-Breslau principle

Price Guard Wire Method

Price Guard Wire Method Some form of  Price Guard Wire Method  is generally used to eliminate the errors caused by leakage currents over insulation. Fig. 3.14 illustrates the operation of This Method. In fig 3.14(a), a high resistance mounted on a piece of insulating material is measured by the ammeter voltmeter method. The micro-ammeter measures the sum of the current through the resistor (IR) and the current through the leakage path around the resistor. The measured value of resistance computed from the readings indicated on the voltmeter and the microammeter, will not be a true value but will be in error.   Figure 3.14 Application of  guard  circuit for measurement of high resistance In fig, 3.14 (b), the  guard  terminal has been added to the resistance terminal block. The  guard  terminal surrounds the resistance terminal entirely and is connected to the battery side of the micro-ammeter. The leakage current IL now

Streamer Theory of Breakdown in Gases

Streamer Theory of Breakdown in Gases According to the Townsend theory firstly, current growth occurs as a result of the ionization process only. But in practice, breakdown voltages were found to depend on the gas pressure and the geometry of the gap. Second chances time lags of the order of 10-5 s, but practically it was observed to occur at a very short time of 10-8 s. Also, the Townsend mechanism predicts a very diffused form of discharge, that actually discharges were found to be filamentary and irregular. Townsend's mechanism failed to explain all these observed phenomena and as a result, The Streamer theory was proposed. The theory predicts the development of a spark discharge directly from a single avalanche in which the space charge developed by the avalanche itself is said to transform the avalanche into a plasma steamer. In Fig 1.7, a single electron starting at the cathode by ionization builds up an avalanche that crosses the gap. The electrons in the a