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Coil Ignition System

Coil Ignition System

It is also known as a battery ignition system. As shown in fig. battery ignition system a four-cylinder engine consists of the following essential components :

(a) Battery

(b) Ammeter

(c) Ignition switch

(d) Induction coil

(e) Contact breaker

(f) Condenser

(g) Distributor

(h) Spark plug

Coil Ignition System Diagram

The battery ignition system is divided into two circuits i.e. primary and secondary circuits. The primary course starts at the battery and passes through the ammeter, ignition switch, primary winding, and contact breaker points to the ground. One end of the condenser is connected to the contact breaker and the other end is grounded. The ground is usually the engine itself.

The secondary circuit is not electrically connected to the primary ignition circuit. It starts from the ground (usually the engine) and passes through the secondary winding, ' distributor, and spark plug to the ground. When the ignition switch is on, the current will flow through the primary coil, it sets up a magnetic field that surrounds both the primary and secondary coils. When the contact breaker opens, the magnetic field collapses and the movement of the magnetic. the field induces a current in the secondary coil. Due to a large number of turns (about 20,000) of fine wire in the secondary coil, the voltage increases up to 30,000 volts. 

The primary coil consists of a few turns (about 300) of thick wire. This high-voltage passes to a distributor. It connects the spark plug in rotation depending upon the engine's firing order. Hence the ignition of fuel takes place 1n all the cylinders of the engine.

The purpose of the contact breaker is to make and break the contact of the primary circuit four times in every revolution of the cam. It consists of four lobes.

A condenser is connected across the contact breaker for the following reasons :

(a) Avoid sparking at contact breaker points.

(b) To induce a high voltage in the secondary coil.

The distributor distributes the current to connected spark plugs of different cylinders according to the firing order of the engine. This takes place by means of the rotor arm of the distributor.

Advantages of Coil Ignition System

  1. It gives a better spark at the low speed of the engine and starts.

  2. It is a reliable system and regular maintenance is very low except for battery and breaker points.

  3. It has a low initial cost. Disadvantages of Coil Ignition System

  4. At a higher speed, sparking voltage drops.

  5. The battery needs regular attention.

  6. The system is bulky and occupies more space.

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